Biasanya teks itu digolongkan menjadi berbagai jenis alias tipe (type) dan sering juga disebut genre. Siswa SMP wajib mengenal teks descriptive, report, narrative, recount dan procedure. Klasifikasi teks ini dibuat berdasarkan beberapa elemen dari teks tersebut yang meliputi tujuan penulisan teks (purpose), sistematika penulisan (generic structure) paragraf-paragrafnya dan aspek gramatikal lainnya yang digunakan penulis untuk membangun tulisan/teksnya
Purpose: To describe a particular person, place or thing.
Generic Structure descriptive:
Identification (identify phenomenon to be described)
Description (describe parts, qualities, characteristics)
Language features descriptive:
Focus on specific participants
Use of attributive and identifying processes
Frequent use classifiers in nominal groups.
Use of the Simple Present Tense
Purpose: To describe the way things are (for example: a man -made thing, animals, plants). The things must be a representative of their class.
Text organization report:
General classification (introduces the topic of the report/tells what phenomenon under discussion is.)
Description (tell the details of topic such as physical appearance, parts, qualities, habits/behaviour).
Language features report:
Use of general nouns ( Whales, Kangaroo, Computer)
Use of present tense(Komodo dragons usually weigh more than 160 kg)
Use of behavioural verbs (Snakes often sunbathe in the sun)
Use of technical terms ( Water contains oxygen and hydrogen)
Use of relating verbs (is, are, has)
Purpose: To amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem.
Generic Structure Narrative:
Orientation ( who was involved, when and where was it happened)
Complication ( a problem arises and followed by other problems)
Resolution ( provide solution to the problem)
Language features Narrative:
Use of noun phrases ( a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
Use of adverbial phrases of time and place ( in the garden, two days ago)
Use of simple past tense ( He walked away from the village)
Use of action verbs ( walked, slept)
Use of adjectives phrases ( long black hair)
Purpose: To tell the readers what happened in the past through a sequence of events.
Generic Structure of Recount:
Orientation ( who were involved, when and where was it happened)
Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order)
Re-orientation ( optional – closure of events)
Language features Recount:
Use of pronouns and nouns ( David, he, she)
Use of action verbs in past (went, studied)
Use of past tense ( We went for a trip to the zoo)
Use of adverbial phrases
Use of adjectives
Purpose: To help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instructions or directions.
1. Goals ( the final purpose of doing the instruction)
2. Materials ( ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions)
3. Steps ( a set of instruction to achieve the final purpose)
Language features :
Use of imperative ( Cut…….., Don’t mix……..)
Use of action verbs (turn, put)
Use of connectives(first, then, finally)